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Geophysics has always been related to the exploitation of Natural Resources


In natural conditions, the thermic gradient of the Earth is 3C for each 100 metres depth. Nevertheless there are zones with an anomalous gradient which can be found with a GEOTHERMIC PROFILING, perfect to evaporate quickly a given water amount.

Figure 1 shows a drill with thermic sensors (thermapairs) finding a "hot stratum" associated with volcanoes, thermal waters and geysers. Once the previous geophysical study analized the factibility of the geothermic station, a drilling to the anomalous zone is done, introducing two pipes. The first pipe carries water while the second (wich is located upper) receives the over-heated steam. The next step is the same as the one carried out in a conventional thermic station: the steam is driven to a turbine where its movement results in electric energy (figure 2)

* Pros: cheap and clean energy. Fast starting (2 years)
* Against: Lose value in 40 years or less
* Risks (avoidable): a collapsing of the soil and obstruction in the pipes because of the settlement of mineral salts

Remark: Chile is located in the Pacific Fire belt, so the magamatic activity is favorauble to exploit this kind of energy. Possible places: innumerable zones with hot springs, Tatio geysers and Villarrica volcano.
* See more:


Because of the several questions received, here you can find everything you wanted to know about the eolic generators.

In the market there are cheap eolic generators which have the capacity to cover the energy needs of about 60 houses, without the need of doing a great electric wiring.
These systems work well in a speed range of the wind from 3.5 m/s to 6 m/s. With mild winds or with great unexpected demands of electric energy, the system can be complemented with solar pannels and even with gas or diesel generators. Whereas, with the presence of hurricaned winds, the sail can have a safe braking electromagnetic system.
The system is complete with a long cycle battery (to store energy for several days) and an inverter (that changes and amplifies Direct Current into Altern Current)
The continual voltage range from 12 V (cabin) to 100 V (village) The increasing of the power with the windspeed is in its major part linear.

A) Eolic Generator, B) Controller, C) Battery, D) Charge Regulator, E) Inverter, F) Solar pannels, G) Gas-Diesel generator, H) Electric devices

Here we also have mechanic energy (eolic to be accurate) transformed into electric energy through the use of a generator. With nowadays technology the real cost of 1 KWh of eolic energy is US$ 0.150 while the KWh in a thermoelectric station is just US$ 0.025. Is that the necessary cost to have a clean future?

Eolic energy in Chile:
* Puerto Saavedra: Nahuelhuapi and Puaucho (at present, abandoned)
* Carahue: Villa Las Araucarias
* Eolic farm in the surroundings of Calama, promoted by Codelco and a result of the Kyoto Protocol. Let's remember that Codelco "bolts down" 30% of the electricity generated in Chile

1-Rotor blades (20 m long)
2- Hub
3- Low speed axis (25 rpm)
4- Multiplicator. Amplifies the spin in 50 factor
5- Hydraulics system
6- High speed axis. Make works the generator
7- Direction mechanism
8- Electric generator (500 to 1500 KW)
9- Electronic controller
10- Refrigeration unit
11- Anemometer and wind van


Why was "El Tatio" Geothermical power station project abandonned?

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