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* New Method to find Gold (Jan 04)
* Hydrothermal water and Geology
* Geology of the Patagonia

* Mineralogy: Universidad Javeriana
* Paleontology
* Crista-Mine: UNED

Continental drift

Rock series

The 5 Stratigraphic Geological Principles

* Correlation: if a fossil of the same kind is found in two different places, the strata belong to the same period
* Dualism: The phenomena at the present time explain the past
* Superposition: the superior strata are later than the inferior ones
* Of Faunistic Succession: the strata can be distinguished because of its associated fossils
* Of Original Horizontality: the sedimentary strata are, originally, horizontals

Geology : Geo + logos = Study of the Earth
Science that studies the succession of the features and geographical characteristics that the earth surface, from the moment when the litosphere first consolidated to our days.
Subdivisions: Cosmology, Paleonthology, Structural Geology, Petrology, Geomorphology, Physiography, etc.
August 26-2005: Inner Core Diferential Motion Confirmed by Earthquake Waveform Doublets
Jian Zhang, Xiaodong Song, Yingchun Li, Paul G. Richards, Xinlei Sun, Felix Waldhauser
ABSTRACT - Science Magazine
We analyzed 18 high-quality waveform doublets with time separations of up to 35 years in the South Sandwich Islands region, for which the seismic signals have traversed the inner core as PKP(DF). The doublets show a consistent temporal change of travel times at up to 58 stations in and near Alaska, and they show a dissimilarity of PKP(DF) coda. Using waveform doublets avoids artifacts of earthquake mislocations and contamination from small-scale heterogeneities. Our results confirm that Earth's inner core is rotating faster than the mantle and crust at about 0.3° to 0.5° per year.
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Geomorphology studies the relationship among the different types of soil and certain features of the landscape (Figure)

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Outstanding Mineral

Symbol: Cu, Atomic Number: 29, Atomic mass: 63.54

With humidity it gets covered with a layer of basic carbon dioxide which gives its characteristic green color

The Top 3 in copper (year 1999)

* Chile: 4422 KT (36%)
* USA: 1590 KT (13%)
* Canada: 771 KT (6%)

Historic: Codelco has announced that is going to fall its production.
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What gives more information is: a geophysics pseudosection or a stratigraphical cross section?