The International Geophysics Year (1957-1958)
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The IGY corresponds to the period of 18 months (july 1st, 1957 to dec 31, 1958) during the which an extensive program of geophysics researches were made. The period was intended to coincide with the period of higher solar activity and four previous lectures for its organisation were prepared (Brussels 1953, Roma 1954, Brussels 1955 and Barcelona 1956). Sixty six nations participated, being the most important enterprise the one of crossing the Antarctic from the Weddel sea to the Ross sea, including a stop in the South Pole. The geophysics researches were grouped under three categories:
* Atmosphere geophysics (solar activity, radiations, etc.)
* Waterflow (oceanography, meteorology, etc.)
* Earth structure (gravimetry, seismology, etc.)


* 1882-83: Polar Year. Twelve bases were organized in the artic regions by iniciative of Karl Weyprecht. The researches included: oceanography, meteorology, polar auroras, terrestrial magnetism, etc.
* 1932-33: Second Polar Year. The task was repeated taking part in this 44 nations and with the latest technology of that time (radiosondes, seismographs, etc.). The research program included telluric currents, ionosphere studies, radio transmissions, meteorology, gravimetry, etc.


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